The automated data-generation tool in this toolkit is available online, provides comprehensive country snapshots of the context in which female entrepreneurs and workers operate and allows for country and regional comparisons. At the click of a button, the tool generates country-level information across some 125 indicators, organized by the toolkit’s topics: access to finance; access to markets; business climate; legal and regulatory framework; social norms; training, skills, and information; and technology. Sources for all indicators are referenced in the online automated data generation tool. In addition to this automated method of compiling quantitative data, teams should also seek to answer a list of supplementary questions by looking for respective data and information that may exist in-country but cannot be automated. Suggested data sources for these supplementary questions, if applicable, are indicated in parentheses in this toolkit. Below is a complete list of the indicators and secondary questions.
- Female labor force participation rate in the country (ILO)
- Male labor force participation rate in the country (ILO)
- Female permanent full-time workers (Enterprise Surveys)
- Female part-time employment rate (OECD)
- Percentage of the population that is self-employed (ILO)
- Male informal employment as percentage of total nonagricultural employment (ILO)
- Female informal employment as percentage of total nonagricultural employment (ILO)
- Wage equality for similar work (World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey)
- Percentage of females employed in agriculture (ILO)
- Percentage of males employed in agriculture (ILO)
- Percentage of females employed in services (ILO)
- Percentage of males employed in services (ILO)
- Percentage of females employed in industry (ILO)
- Percentage of males employed in industry (ILO)
- Percentage of women in wage employment in nonagricultural sector (World Bank, World Development Indicators)
- Country Economic Participation and Opportunity Index (World Economic Forum, Gender Gap Report 2016 Database)
- Number of procedures for males to start a business (Doing Business)
- Number of procedures for females to start a business (Doing Business)
- Time in days for females to start a business (Doing Business)
- Time in days for males to start a business (Doing Business)
- Cost as a percentage of income per capita for females to start a business (Doing Business)
- Cost as a percentage of income per capita for males to start a business (Doing Business)
- Female/male TEA: percentage of females (ages 18-64) who are nascent entrepreneurs or owner-managers of a new business divided by equivalent percentage of their male counterparts (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor)
- Percentage of women entrepreneurs with informal versus formal businesses (i.e., female entrepreneurs that pay taxes on business revenue) (ILO)
- Percentage of firms with majority female ownership (Enterprise Surveys)
- Percentage of sole proprietors who are women (Doing Business)
- Percentage of sole proprietors who are men (Doing Business)
- Women as a percentage of total directors of newly formed LLCs (Doing Business)
- Men as a percentage of total directors of newly formed LLCs (Doing Business)
- TEA of females in female working-age population as percentage of total (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, 2019)
- Female/Male Opportunity-Driven entrepreneurs: percentage of female early-stage, opportunity-driven entrepreneurs divided by percentage of their male counterparts (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2019)
- Percentage of firms with a female top manager (Enterprise Surveys)
- Perceived ease of doing business (Doing Business)
- Percentage of firms identifying A2F as major constraint (Enterprise Surveys)
- What is the perceived attitude toward entrepreneurial failure? (Global Competitiveness Report, World Economic Forum 2018)
- Are there chambers of commerce or boards of trade in the country? (World Chambers Network Database)
- Country's Global Innovation Index score (GII website)
- Do social/cultural norms encourage or allow actions leading to business methods that increase personal wealth/income? (GEM)
- Does the national culture encourage innovativeness and creativity? (GEM)
- Is the national culture supportive of individual success achieved through one ́s own personal efforts? (GEM)
- Does the national culture emphasize self-sufficiency, autonomy, and personal initiative? (GEM)
- Does the national culture encourage entrepreneurial risk taking? (GEM, 2015)
- Percentage of persons with mobile phones by gender (OECD)
- Percentage of users with access to the Internet, female (ITU Development Statistics)
- Percentage of users with access to the Internet, male (ITU Development Statistics)
- Mobile Connectivity Index (country performance against key enablers of mobile Internet adoption: infrastructure, affordability, consumer readiness, content and services) (GSMA Statistics)
- Percentage of women that use mobile phones or the Internet to pay bills or buy goods online? (Findex)
- Percentage of men that use mobile phones or the Internet to pay bills or buy goods online? (Findex)
Banking and technology
- What percentage of women make or receive digital payments? (Findex)
- What percentage of women have a mobile money account? (Findex)
- What percentage of men have a mobile money account? (Findex)
- What percentage of females in the country utilized mobile money services in the last 12 months? (Findex)
- What percentage of males in the country utilized mobile money services in the last 12 months? (Findex)
Innovation and technology in accessing markets
- Percentage of firms with their own websites (Enterprise Surveys)
- Can a broadband connection request be completed entirely online? (WBG DBI database)
- What is the average price for a month of business broadband connection with at least 10 Mbps download speed and unlimited data usage? (WBG DBI database)
- Is there a significant difference in mobile usage in urban versus rural areas?
- What, if any, are the perceived constraints for women having mobile phones?
- Is the government collaborating with any mobile phone manufacturers or 2G, 3G, or 4G providers to improve connectivity? (GSMA)
- Does the country have established national e-commerce platform(s) that SMEs access? (GSMA)
- Percentage of women married before age 18 (World Development Indicators)
- There is no legal provision that requires a married woman to obey her husband (Women Business and the Law)
- Can a woman be head of household in the same way as a man? (Women Business and the Law)
- Do married couples jointly share legal responsibility for financially maintaining the family's expenses? (Women Business and the Law)
Legal right to assets
- Do men and women have equal ownership rights to immovable property? (Women Business and the Law)
- Do women have equal access to register property, as part of property rights index? (Women Business and the Law)
- Do sons and daughters have equal rights to inherit assets from their parents? (Women Business and the Law)
- Do female and male surviving spouses have equal rights to inherit assets? (Women Business and the Law)
- Does the law grant spouses equal administrative authority over assets during marriage? (Women Business and the Law)
- Does a woman's testimony carry the same evidentiary weight in court as a man's? (Women Business and the Law)
- Does the law provide for the valuation of nonmonetary contributions (i.e., unpaid domestic work)? (Women Business and the Law)
Credit and finance laws
- Can a woman legally open a bank account in the same way as a man? (Women Business and the Law)
- Does the law prohibit discrimination in access to credit based on gender? (Women Business and the Law)
- Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? (Women Business and the Law)
- Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? (Women Business and the Law)
- Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? (Women Business and the Law)
- Can women work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men? (Women Business and the Law)
- Are men and women separated from working together at employment locations? (Women Business and the Law)
- Can women interact freely with men in a business context? (Women Business and the Law)
- Does the law prohibit discrimination in employment based on gender? (Women Business and the Law)
- Is there legislation on sexual harassment in employment? (Women Business and the Law)
- Does the government support or provide childcare services? (Women Business and the Law)
- Are there criminal penalties or civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment? (Women Business and the Law)
- Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? (Women Business and the Law)
- Are women able to work in the same industries as men? (Women Business and the Law)
- Are childcare payments tax-deductible? (Women Business and the Law)
- Are there enabling policy frameworks/data legislation to support long-term investments in new technology solutions and applications, such as the use and protection of big data? (GSMA)
- Account ownership at financial institution or with a mobile-money-provider service provider, female (WBG Gender Data Portal)
- Account ownership at financial institution or with a mobile-money-provider service provider, male (WBG Gender Data Portal)
- Percentage of Financial Institution Account Owners by gender (Findex)
- Saved at a financial institution, female (Findex)
- Saved at financial institution, male (Findex)
- What percentage of women saved to start, operate, or expand a farm or business? (Findex)
- What percentage of men saved to start, operate, or expand a farm or business? (Findex)
- What percentage of women have a debit card? (Findex)
- What percentage of men have a debit card? (Findex)
- What percentage of women have a credit card? (Findex)
- What percentage of men have a credit card? (Findex)
- What percentage of women borrow from a financial institution? (Findex)
- What percentage of men borrow from a financial institution? (Findex)
- What percentage of women borrow from family or friends? (Findex)
- What percentage of men borrow from family or friends? (Findex)
- What percentage of women borrow from a savings club? (Findex)
- What percentage of men borrow from a savings club? (Findex)
- Percentage of female agricultural landholders (FAO)
- Percentage of male agricultural landholders (FAO)
- Does the country’s central bank require that financial institutions provide sex-disaggregated data on bank accounts and savings account ownership?
- Is it legal for financial institutions to collect customer data by sex? Is the data reported publicly or to the government?
- What percentage of business loans go to WSMEs in the country?
- Does the country have online or electronic immovable collateral registry program(s)?
- Does the country have online or electronic collateral registry programs for movable collateral (machinery, jewelry, etc.)?
- Do women in the country have equal access to the online or electronic movable and/or immovable collateral registry program(s)?
- Do Fintech programs exist that use big data (mobile phone or utility bills) to determine credit-worthiness?
- Does the country´s physical infrastructure (roads, utilities, communications, waste disposal) provide support for new and growing firms? (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, 2019)
- Percentage of firms expected to give gifts to public officials to get things done (Enterprise Surveys)
- Days to obtain an import license (Enterprise Surveys)
- Percentage of firms identifying customs and trade restrictions as major constraint (Enterprise Surveys)
- Percentage of firms whose new products/services are also new to the main market (Enterprise Surveys)
- Has the government recently engaged in or committed to infrastructure projects to increase accessibility and affordability of ICT services?
- Does the government have a procurement process that encourages SMEs and WSMEs to bid on government contracts?
- Is there a WEConnect office in the country? If so, how many women-owned businesses are registered with the country's WEConnect office?
- Does the government have an export promotion agency that assists with licenses, offers trainings, organizes trade missions, etc.?
- Percentage of country´s labor force with business skills (accounting, communications, finance, management, marketing, sales)? (Global Skills Index, 2019, published by Coursera)
- Is there a perception that government programs aimed at new and growing firms are effective? (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, 2018)
- What in-country support organizations exist, and what support services do they offer?
- Does the government offer programs that teach women about jobs in different sectors, training involved, expected earnings, etc.?
- Are there government agency resources such as training programs available to entrepreneurs?
- Are there any training programs offered by the government specifically for women?
- Are there in-country business incubators and accelerators (UBI Global Directory of business accelerators and incubators, 2019–20) Also see https://www.galidata.org/accelerators/directory/.
- Does the country have a STEP (Skills and Training for Employment Program) initiative? (Enterprise Surveys)
- How easy is it for business owners to find skilled employees?
Overarching Horizontal Themes: Indicators
Indicators under the Social Norms rubric cover topics such as health, education, mobility, voice and agency, and gender-based violence. These include measures of women's education levels, access to health-related services, domestic obligations, experiences of violence, freedom of movement, and representation in their community and beyond.
From a development perspective, social norms must be examined both for their particular effect on women’s business opportunities and in terms of how they interact with and likely exacerbate other barriers to female economic participation. Understanding the social context better enables project teams to (i) diagnose gender issues affecting women business owners, (ii) develop workable solutions in project design, and (iii) determine the policy reforms required to remove the barriers identified.
To obtain the most accurate understanding of conditions, it is important to recognize that the difficulties women face in accessing markets or in entering specific sectors may not be the same across countries or regions, even if social norms appear similar on the surface. A careful analysis is required to reveal women's and men's domestic responsibilities, their respective levels of economic activity, the sectors in which they are employed, and the jobs they hold.
The Business Climate indicators provide a broad view of the prevalence of entrepreneurship and the ease of doing business within a country by considering the percentage of the population that is self-employed and the specific business organizations and programs in place (such as chambers of commerce, business incubators, and accelerators). A second set of indicators specifically addresses working women and assesses the origins of female self-employment, considering, for example, if it is due to necessity or opportunity and how common it is for women to be business owners, leaders, and managers in a country.
Indicators on Access to Technology assess women entrepreneurs’ business environments in terms of low, medium, or high levels of technology use and gather information about cell phone ownership, use of mobile technology to conduct digital transactions, access to the Internet, and ability to harness technology to communicate with customers and promote products. The information gathered can serve as an initial indication of the infrastructure available, government technology policy initiatives, and the range of viable digital solutions project teams can consider including in program design.
Indicators pertaining to the digital toolkit's four main constraints help assess the breadth and depth of barriers that women entrepreneurs confront when starting and growing a business.
Legal and Regulatory Framework indicators largely follow findings published in the Women, Business, and the Law annual report and are intended to solicit information about women's legal rights in a country. The indicators investigate national laws regarding conditions inside and outside the home, including a woman's ability to inherit and hold assets, to access credit and sign contracts, and to receive legal protection from sexual harassment and other forms of discrimination. Taken together, the legal and regulatory indicators shed light on how valued and visible women are in a society relative to men and the extent of the progress that women have made toward gender equality. This information can highlight where further legal and policy action is needed.
Access to Finance indicators cover women's level of financial inclusion with an emphasis on digital financial services (DFS). Indicators cover both access to and use of DFS to better understand the day-to-day use of products beyond account opening. Global Findex data provide some of these insights. In addition to the information on digital finance, data on bank account ownership, the savings rates of women entrepreneurs, and their sources of credit are included. The data compiled here reflects the extent to which women can use both traditional financial services and digital providers and services.
Indicators related to Training, Skills, and Information reveal the resources and tools available to female entrepreneurs and their employees to improve business performance, who is providing these services, and the ease with which employers can find employees with the skills needed to perform jobs. These data can help assess, for example, whether women can obtain the training they need to improve their own performance and to build the skills of their employees.
The Market Access indicators provide insight into the infrastructure in which entrepreneurs operate their businesses. The range of issues covered includes the quality and reliability of roads, electricity, and ICT; and the ease of obtaining an import license and conducting international trade. This data aim to identify the ease with which women open businesses, source business inputs, and expand their customer base.
The majority of the desktop indicators were selected for inclusion in this toolkit’s diagnostic because they can be found in comprehensive and regularly updated databases that include datapoints for most developing countries. Although some indicators specifically focus on women, others do not distinguish between male and female entrepreneurs and apply directly to firms, as is the case with all the indicators under the Access to Markets topic. In this case, the project teams will obtain gender-specific information through field-based focus group and interview questions as well as by consulting complementary national data where these are available disaggregated by sex.
In addition, it is important to recognize certain limitations related to the data provided by the data-automation tool. The quantity and quality of data will not be uniform across countries; for some, publicly available data on the constraints and themes covered by this toolkit will be limited, and additional data from other sources may be required. In these situations, field-based research will be especially important for filling data gaps and for enabling comparisons between what stakeholders express in the focus groups and interviews and the available country data.
Finally, the identified constraints faced by women entrepreneurs are not ranked. Each project team will need to determine, based on the country-specific information collected in the desktop and field-based phase of their work, which are the most critical constraints and barriers faced by women entrepreneurs, based on research conducted, and then design project activities accordingly.